The Fact Sheet outlines the project’s rationale and objectives, specify its application domains, and detail the final outputs.
Unlike most European countries, Romania does not have yet a general cadastre, related to the boundaries of administrative territorial units, properties, public and private areas that could provide essential and complete data for the entire territory of the country. There is still an un-clarified juridical situation for many real estate parcels, since many owners do not have property documents due to the lack of a comprehensive land registration system (lack in the certainty of tenure). Such a deficiency represents a critical element for the economy of the country, since it makes legal contracts, such as land purchasing, very difficult to be implemented.
The legal and cadastral situation of agricultural land is a consequence of the last decades’ history. Historically, Transylvania, Banat and Bucovina, i.e. those Romanian regions once belonging to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had, in the 19th century, a land registry for technical and fiscal evidence. After the unification of Romanian territories in 1918, it was only in 1933 that the first law on land cadastre and registry was issued and later modified in 1938. During the communist period (1948-1989) the implementation of this law was interrupted and limited to land evidence in terms of property categories and owners, without a legal effect of land registration.
In order to answer to the new market economy, in 1996 the government passed the law on cadastre and land registration, later republished in 2013, when the National Office of Cadastre and Land Registration was set-up, nowadays renamed as National Agency of Cadastre and Land Registration, ANCPI (the coordinator of CENTRIC). Between 2007 and 2008 all certified property titles were scanned and saved into a database. Several delineation plans have been converted from analogic to digital format and stored within the national database, thus representing an important component of the general cadastre. As a result, 2,800,000 cadastral documents belonging to 35 out of 41 counties (NUTS3 level) were scanned and saved into the database. Further 1,781,456 cadastral registers were converted into digital format. During the same timeframe, local authorities had to create parcelling plans, introducing property certificates into the land registry. Furthermore, the CESAR project brought to the creation of an inventory of real estate properties followed by free tabulation in 91 NUTS 5 (communes) in rural areas, out of the 42 NUTS3 territorial units. This allowed free registering into the cadastral registry of real estate properties, with the identification of their legal owners. However, the lack of funds led to the impossibility of finalizing this project, which was funded in the context of an agreement with the World Bank.
The latest statistical figures from ANCPI show that today there are approximately 6,200,000 real estate properties, registered into the Integrated System of Cadastre and Land Registration, the IT system developed by ANCPI. However this is only an estimated 15% of the total number of real estate properties existing at national level. The Integrated System of Cadastre and Land Registration is one of the main infrastructure planned in the 2013-2016 programme of the Romanian Government.
The social and economic impact of having a complete Integrated System of Cadastre and Land Registration will be very significant. For this reason, and mostly relevant for CENTRIC, the Romanian Government has decided to ensure financial support to a National Programme for a Unitary System of Cadastre and Land Registration, with a focus on the delivery of a unique database of all information on existing real estate properties. The Government Decision no. 448/2013 states that the “Integrated System of Cadastre and Land Registration in urban areas” will have to be gradually implemented, also by attracting alternative financial resources. Efficient land registration and cadastre, integrated legal framework, and transparency are among the principles for developing sound and sustainable real estate markets as noted by UNECE REM (Real Estate Market Advisory group) -Policy Framework for Sustainable Real Estate Markets, 2010.
The main purpose of CENTRIC is to create a Centre of Excellence, which will be capable to achieve, in the medium to long-term, strong scientific presence at the EU and international level.
The main purpose of CENTRIC is to create a Centre of Excellence which will be capable to achieve, in the medium to long-term, strong scientific presence at the EU and international level, acquiring a position that will enable it to actively participate in and influence developments in scientific domains such as 3D/4D geospatial data, linked geospatial data, land classification, remotely sensed data etc.
Furthermore, the project will aim at the creation of a suitable ecosystem at the national Romanian and EU level, through a number of capacity building and dissemination activities.
Coordinator: Agenția Națională de Cadastru și Publicitate Imobiliară
The H2020 programme
From 01/06/2015 to 31/05/2016
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